Dude! It’s time to talk about the summer movie season

The Fantastic Four return in 2015 with a gritty, dark reboot. Courtesy Fox

The Fantastic Four return in 2015 with a gritty, dark reboot. Courtesy Fox

Since I was a kid, summer was about going to the movies. I blame Star Wars, really. I enjoyed movies before Star Wars, but, as an eight-year-old kid sitting in a theater, Star Wars was a religious experience.

Of course the summer movie season has grown since then, with the studios putting all their big-tent movies out during the season, hoping to rake in dump trucks full of money. And while it’s easy to shrug off summer films as ephemera, many of them have remained popular over the years. Yes, the summer movie is typically “the popcorn flick” in the minds of many. But what’s wrong with that? The Wizard of Oz is really a popcorn flick, and a damn great film.

I’m excited for this summer, although last year will be hard to beat. Marvel book-ended our 2014 summer with Captain America: The Winter Soldier and Guardians of the Galaxy, two great films that show just how well-oiled the Might Marvel Movie Machine is. We also got Dawn of the Planet of the Apes and X-Men: Days of Future Past. Both are good movies based on what seemed like tired franchises.

So here’s a breakdown of some of 2015’s most anticipated summer films. I will generously rant about what’s wrong with humanity as the subject comes up. My expectations are based on the trailer and whatever general knowledge about the film is out there.

Marvel’s The Avengers: Age of Ultron

avengers age of ultron poster

Who the hell makes titles to movies these days? I miss the old days when Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home came out and, rather than waste time and brain cells saying and remembering that title, we just said “the one with the whales.”

And I like that they always put “Marvel” at the front. I thought the last Avengers film was a sequel to the Ralph Fiennes/Uma Thurman film.

When The Avengers came out a few years ago, I expected it to be the peak of the Mighty Marvel Movie Movement. We had gotten a great collection of films: Iron Man, Iron Man 2 (not the best, but still a watchable film), The Incredible Hulk, Thor, and Captain America: The First Avenger. Not only was it a fun film that used the characters and cast well, it whetted my appetite for more Marvel movies.

Again, I feel that maybe this year is the apex for Marvel. But I’m always wrong. It just seems like the property is getting so big, it is bound to crush itself.

What Marvel and Disney have done is unprecedented. They’ve created a cinematic universe. The move took balls and it paid off. They’ve developed a cinematic fabric that keeps getting larger and more complex.


I must say, Disney has become the master’s of building anticipation through teasers and trailers. The trailers to Age of Ultron tell us as little as possible about the film, yet instilling a desire to see the film. I thought Ultron was a terrible villain choice until I saw him move and heard James Spader’s voice.

Age of Ultron is the big movie this summer. My biggest concerns is some of the action scenes look exactly like the action scenes in the first film. There’s also an ever-so-slight feeling that the main cast is getting a little tired of these movies.

The Fast and the Furious 7

furious 7

Or Furious 7.

I’m not sure if the term “guilty pleasure” is a useful term or not. If you like a film, you like it. You shouldn’t feel guilty about it. Well, if your favorite film is Fifty Shades of Grey, you should feel guilty … and see a priest. Movies are highly subjective. While a general consensus has some value, I enjoy reading reviews to get other people’s perspectives, it all boils down to whether each individual liked it or not.

I really dig the Fast and Furious series. There are some serious missteps since there was never a plan to have a franchise. It was Fast Five that really pulled the series together. That film had everything I want in an action movie (although boobs would have been nice).  And Furious 6 followed that formula. I’ve grown to like these characters. And the films deliver a lot of bang for your buck.


F7 was originally intended to come out last year, but Paul Walker died. I’m still not sure how this will be handled in the film. The biggest challenge is going to be how do the filmmakers produce a film that’s fun and exciting without disrespecting the audience’s feelings about Walker. Tough situation. I hope it’s handled well.

Ant-Man

ant-man poster

When Marvel announced Guardians of the Galaxy, I thought it had gone off the deep end. I was familiar with the characters (neerrrd!), but could not image the general public accepting such an eccentric concept.

To its credit, the Massive Marvel Marketing Machine really sold the film to audiences.

Ant-Man is another quirky Marvel concept. The effort to get Ant-Man on the screen has been challenging. Edgar Wright, who made Scott Pilgrim vs. The World, one of my favorite comic book adaptation, was all set to direct. Eventually he left and Peyton Reed (Yes Man, Bring It On, and The Break-Up) got the job.


The teaser left me shrugging my shoulders. I hope it’s good. Really, I never want a movie to be bad. I don’t have time for bad movies. Paul Rudd seems a bit miscast, but Marvel’s been dead-on with its casting in these films.

And for the record, clever poster Marvel.

Fantastic Four

Fantastic_Four_2015_poster

Can we just stop it with the reboots?


I admit the teaser intrigues me. It is certainly a good-looking film. But the concept of  Dr. Doom being a blogger worries me greatly. This is a franchise that Fox has, so, while a Marvel property, has no relationship with the Mega Marvel Movieverse.

I know I'd pay $12 to see this brought to live action. Come on Fox, bring it!

I know I’d pay $12 to see this brought to live action. Come on Fox, bring it!

Doctor Doom being a blogger shows a lack of confidence in the source material. Have you seen Loki in The Avengers? Marvel and Tom Hiddleston own that shit! It just feels like Fox doesn’t get it.

I used to read Fantastic Four comics. They were fun, colorful, exciting, and, at times, silly. Give it a tone like Guardians of the Galaxy. Or, if you want to be daring Fox, make it a parody of the entire genre. It needs a good ribbing.

Pixels

hpxaytu_large

Wait! A movie not based on a comic book or long-running franchise. Could it be Hollywood wants to produce something original for our summer entertainment orgy?

To quote Nelson Muntz: “Ha ha.”

Courtesy 20th Century Fox

Courtesy 20th Century Fox

This is blatant knock-off of an episode of Futurama. Aliens attack, using classic video games as the blueprint for their invasion. If it were clever, I’d be cool with scrumping the concept.

And did I mention, Adam Sandler? I love his older films. They are stupid, and I mean STUPID, but I laughed a lot during Happy Gilmore and The Waterboy. However, the guy hasn’t had an inspired moment in more than a decade. Based on the trailer, he’s just walking through this role. And honestly, if Adam Sandler doesn’t give a shit about his career, why should I?


My feeling is that this movie exists for two reasons: nostalgia and CGI. Wouldn’t it be great if all your favorite old-school video game characters invaded earth? Not really. Hey, with CGI we can make it look like a pixilated Donkey Kong is really attacking mankind. That’s cool, right? Um, we’ve really passed the point of CGI as just a visual gimmick.

Mad Max: Fury Road

mad-max-fury-road tom hardy

Originally I forgot to write anything about Mad Max: Fury Road. That’s a shame, because I’m excited about this one. I am not one to gripe about CGI in films. But it has been overused. While this film has some CGI, the majority of the action is practical. And by practical I mean cars and trucks smashing into each other.

I love the original films, especially The Road Warrior. Beyond Thunderdome is weak, partially because it is a watered-down, kid-friendly version of the first two films. But the first two, I swear stunt men died making those.

That’s insane! Tom Hardy looks like he’s going to do a great job taking over Mel’s role. And it’s great to see George Miller, the original director, returning to Max’s post-apocalyptic world. Visually, it looks creative, not derivative.

And it looks like the film’s earned an R rating, so kick those little kids out of the theater and let me enjoy the mayhem.

Terminator: Genisys

entertaiment weekly terminator genisys

For films, Terminator Genisys is like someone (an asshole by the way) took your grandmother’s amazing apple pie recipe and added kale.


Rather than reboot Terminator, still a bad idea, a bunch of people who didn’t have a goddamn thing to do with the classic films have decided to create a change in the timeline, rewriting the events of the original Terminator film.

I was going to use this image to show what I think Paramount is doing to a classic film. But then I realized that might be an insult to Don Martin's comic genius. Image: Mad Magazine.

I was going to use this image to show what I think Paramount is doing to a classic film. But then I realized that might be an insult to Don Martin’s comic genius. Image: Mad Magazine.

It’s copying the formula used in Star Trek (2009). However, the producers of this Terminator film less interested in finding a way to reboot the franchise in a way that allows an original story, and more interested in finding a way to re-hash the first film, while pretending to create something new. Looking at the trailer, I see nothing original or even a little clever.

I thought the remake of Robocop got a few things right. First, it was a remake. It took the basic concepts and tried to make its own story out of it. Second, as a remake, it understood that certain rules from the original have to be translated over to the new version.

Unlike Mad Max: Fury Road, Terminator Genisys has no input from James Cameron, the man who created the first two films. Neither situation is a guarantee of quality, but it says something about the artistic vision behind the two films.

I love Arnold Schwarzenegger. And I love the first two Terminator films — and don’t hate the other two. He’s important to the franchise, but that’s only because no one seems to be interested in truly developing an original Terminator film.

The producers recast every character in the film, except Arnold. I would be happier if they just recast the Terminator instead of going with grandpa-terminator. However, the new cast seems a bit off to me. A lot is riding on audiences embracing the new cast.

And that leads me to …

A Little Originality, Please?

I don’t expect every film to be the most original film ever. Many great films have been based on books. Many of the Marvel films are great films with compelling plots, interesting characters, and clever dialogue.

John Carpenter's The Thing (1982) was a remake of a film based on a short story. The film, however, is very much its own entity, full of creative visuals. Courtesy Universal Pictures.

John Carpenter’s The Thing (1982) was a remake of a film based on a short story. The film, however, is very much its own entity, full of creative visuals. Courtesy Universal Pictures.

But the current summer movie roster seems to lack any original ideas. If you look at 1982, a big summer movie season, studios released a large variety of films. Yes, many of them were franchise films (there was a Grease 2?). However, there was also E.T., Blade Runner, and Fast Times at Ridgemont High.

It is sad, at least for me, when Pixels seems like the most original idea out there. It’s not a very original idea, not at all.

It also bothers me that we, the audience, now use Hollywood business terminology for our films. Every film is intended to be a franchise. We don’t think of Avengers as a series of films, but as a product. Fox and Sony keep rebooting the Fantastic Four and Spider-man because they don’t want to lose the property.

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Review: Sabotage

sabotageposterDirector David Ayer returns to his favorite subject, the corrupting power of authority, in “Sabotage,” a film about a team of DEA agents caught up in a scandal involving stolen drug money and a federal investigation.

The film opens with the team, led by John ‘Breacher’ Wharton (Arnold Schwarzenegger) raiding the home of a crime boss. During the raid, the team hides $10 million, eventually leading to an investigation of the team. The money is taken before they can retrieve it, and someone is murdering members of Wharton’s team.

To give a way more of the plot would require the typical “spoiler alert” warnings, as the film begins twisting and turning itself to keep the plot moving. “Sabotage” is entertaining and features some truly creative action scenes. Most notable is a scene which plays out as a series of back and forth cuts from the murder being committed to Wharton’s discovery of the crime scene. But, as the film progresses, the script seems to lose its way. It ends on such a bizarre note; I wasn’t sure if I should cheer for Wharton or grieve for him. Maybe it was just time to leave.

Script troubles aside, most of the film works just fine. Credit goes to director Ayer, who directed last years’ cop drama “End of Watch” and wrote “Training Day” for crafting a movie that makes us forgive some of its lapses in logic. Ayer’s co-writer, Skip Woods, wrote “A Good Day to Die Hard,” “X-Men Origins: Wolverine,” and many other passionless movies. “Sabotage” seems to be trying to merge Ayer’s realism with Woods’ big Hollywood movie approach. I would have preferred a movie that looked even deeper into the corrupting effect of the drug underworld on law enforcement.

The cast, however, rises above the script, especially Schwarzenegger. I admit, I am a big fan of Arnold. I followed his career as a bodybuilder when I was a kid. I spent a good chunk of my life watching his movies. However, in the two “Expendables” films, he seemed wooden, perhaps from too many years sitting in the governor’s chair. But those appearances were just cameos. I enjoyed “The Last Stand,” but, again, he seemed a bit stiff, physically and creatively. “Escape Plan” showed Schwarzenegger returning to his pre-political charm, playing a tough but likeable inmate. In “Sabotage,” Schwarzenegger is tough and hard, not in the near self-parody way of his Regan-era films. His Wharton is a man that has suffered and Schwarzenegger infuses his character with an edge I have never seen in the actor.

Olivia Williams also stands out as a homicide detective investigating the deaths of Wharton’s team members. Williams, 45, lets her age show. She plays a person who has worked hard in law enforcement. Schwarzenegger’s leading ladies have tended to be very self-determined women and Williams does not disappoint. Her character is never the victim in this film. She can handler herself.

I enjoyed this film. While there are some script troubles and some odd pacing, it is an engaging film with plenty of violence and nudity to entertain audiences looking for some thrills. I just wish it spent more time revealing the world of drug enforcement.

Twinkies Die at Age 82. Is The Zombie Apocalypse Nearing?

Hostess Brands, the makers of such wonderful wrapped snacks as Twinkies, Ho Hos and Wonder Bread said Friday that it is shutting down operations.

I have very few vices. I don’t smoke. I rarely drink. My two biggest vices are my obsession with the cinema art of Arnold Schwarzenegger and Twinkies.

This gloomy news is proof that the end of the world is near! Maybe those damned Mayans got it right after all.

In the movie Zombieland, Tallahassee (Woody Harrelson) has two purposes as he tries to survive the zombie apocalypse: destroy the undead and find Twinkies. The golden cakes with creamy filling are scarce in the future and he has to risk his life to find his favorite snack.

All I’m asking is this: can zombies be too far off in our future?

Our lives are full of anxiety. The economy is recovering, slowly, and the future is still uncertain. We all have our problems: health, relationships gone badly, money woes and natural disasters.

But, as Zombieland showed, sometimes it is the little things that matter. Sometimes a song we like, a puppy running around in the park or, yes, a Twinkie can make the crap fate throws at us just a little easier to endure.

Like Tallahassee, Twinkies were my little decadent escape from the pressures of everyday life. I didn’t eat them often, but when I did, I savored every bite.

Goodbye Hostess. It was fun.

Alien Abduction Therapy: The High Cost of False Memories

In the film “Total Recall,” adapted from the Philip K. Dick short story “We Can Remember It for You Wholesale,” Arnold Schwarzenegger’s Douglas Quaid pays a company to put false memories into his mind. Research has shown that memories can be falsified, moving the story’s concepts out of the realm of the fantastic. (Photo courtesy Lions Gate Entertainment)

In the 1966 futuristic short story “We Can Remember It for You Wholesale,” writer Philip K. Dick introduces Douglas Quail, an unhappy office clerk who dreams of traveling to Mars. Set in the future, the story describes Quail as a man haunted by a dream that cannot be fulfilled. Even though trips to Mars are possible, only important people may travel to the distant red planet. Kirsten, his wife, reminds him of this every day, telling him his obsession is unhealthy. Quail goes to Rekal, a company that specializes in memory implants. One visit to Rekal, says the salesman, will have the customer believing they actually traveled to Mars. Salesman McClane tells Quail the memories will be more convincing than the real thing. Quail undergoes the treatment, only to discover that his memory has already been tampered with. He realizes that all of his memories, including his childhood and marriage, were memory implants.  In the case of Quail, all of his memories were false (2002).

While much of Dick’s story remains in the realm of the fantastic, false memories have frequently arisen when patients undergo Alien Abduction Therapy, an unethical form of psychotherapy that can be emotionally damaging to patients and reflects poorly on the mental health profession.

The Abduction Experience

The accounts of alien abductions, as told by Harvard professor of psychiatry and alien abduction advocate John E. Mack (2003), all have similarities. The subject, alone in bed, feels a presence and hears a low-pitched hum.  Many subjects reported seeing lights and feeling vibrations. The subject report seeing short beings, bald and gray skinned, over him or her. Paralyzed, the subject is unable to move. The person, according to Mack’s report, floats out of the room’s window and enters a large spaceship.

The extraterrestrials examine the paralyzed person. Telepathically, they communicate to him or her that they are performing a series of surgical procedures. In many accounts, these procedures include sexual experiments such as the taking of sperm from males and eggs from females. After the procedures, the subjects are told, again telepathically, that an implant has been put inside of them so the visitors can track him or her.

Frequently, most patients who claimed to have regained memories of being abducted by aliens had no memory of the events until they entered Alien Abduction Therapy (Shermer, 2003, 73). In one case, a woman, who had memories of being sexually abused as a child, entered therapy.  After a few sessions, she believed that she had been abducted by aliens and that her parents were co-conspirators with the extraterrestrials (Eisner, 2000, p. 198).  The subjective methods used by alien abduction therapists demonstrate how fragile human memory can be.

Methods of Recovered Memory Therapy

Alien Abduction Therapy is a concentration of the wider field of Recovered Memory Therapy, which is based on the Freudian belief that physical and mental health issues are the result of forgotten trauma (Eisner, 2000, p. 67). Many patients leave Recovered Memory Therapy believing they were sexually abused as a child, involved in a satanic rite, or the victim of an alien abduction. According to Mack, the memories of alien abduction may not be immediately accessible and “specialized techniques” may be needed to release the experiences (as cited in Eisner, 2000). The techniques commonly used to retrieve these memories are journaling, body work, pharmacologically assisted interviews, hypnosis, and other non-traditional therapy techniques.

Journaling is when a therapist assigns a patient to write down his or her thoughts. However, according to Donald Eisner, alien abduction therapists shape the direction these journals take. According to his book Death of Psychotherapy, therapists have told patients to indicate “any clues regarding the abuse” (2000). Patients are encouraged to write a story about being abused. The therapist offers the patient’s story as proof that he or she has a repressed memory of alien abduction. While journaling is used in traditional therapy, recovery memory therapists shape the content of the patient’s words to support a preconceived idea: the patient was abducted by aliens and harbors repressed memories.

Body work includes massage, Rolfing and Bioenergetics. A therapist specializing in Recovered Memory Therapy will interpret any sign of tension or physical pain as a sign of a forgotten trauma. Even a simple muscle cramp is perceived as proof that the patient is hiding a traumatic memory (Eisner, 2000, p. 72). As with journaling, the therapist has control over the interpretation of the pain.

Some therapists administer sodium amytal, a powerful barbiturate, to patients intravenously, and interview them (Eisner, 2000, p. 75). However, the method used, and praised, by most alien abduction therapists is the use of hypnosis.

Hypnosis

According to David Meyer’s Exploring Psychology, hypnosis is “a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur” (2008). The accepted uses of hypnotism, according to A. Weitzenhoffer (“Hypnosis”), are the following: symptom control, motivation tool, treatment of addiction, and pain control. Weitzenhoffer, an expert in the field of hypnotism, remains critical of the validity of hypnotism. Under hypnotic suggestion, claims David Jacobs, subjects reveal hidden experiences involving extraterrestrials (2003).

Marian, the case study mentioned previously, knew she had suffered traumatic events as a child. She did not see a therapist because she believed she was suffering from repressed memories, but because she wanted help dealing with her known past. Soon, however, the therapist initiated hypnosis with the intention of revealing the forgotten trauma caused by alien abductors. After awakening, Marian was informed of her recovered memories and experiences. Still, however, she had no memory of the events the therapist related to her (Eisner, 2000, p. 198).

The news program 20/20 aired a segment about memory retrieval and alien abductions. The program showed clips of a patient under hypnotic suggestion. Critics of hypnosis as a memory retrieval tool point to the program as evidence of unethical behavior. According to one critic (Shermer, 2003, p. 93), it was clear that the therapist was priming the patient and cueing them toward the proper response.  The therapist would, before putting the patient under hypnotic suggestion, inform the subject that there was no question that alien abductions exist.

Cueing during hypnosis is an important part of the process. David Jacobs, a professor of history at Temple University in Philadelphia, believes that hypnosis is an important tool in retrieving alien abduction trauma (2003). However, he believes that confabulation, the mixing of fact with fiction, is a problem that needs to be addressed. Like most Alien Abduction Therapy advocates, he believes people abducted by aliens have filled in the memory gaps with fabrication. When a patient tells an abduction story that does not agree with the accepted alien abduction story, Jacob believes it is up to the therapist to help the patient discard the fictitious story so that the true alien abduction story can be revealed. The hypnotist guides the subject to the details that are corroborated by patients with similar experiences.

The relationship between patient and therapist in these situations is unhealthy. People seeking a therapist because they are experiencing depression, anxiety, or another mental health issue, may find themselves dealing with a therapist who is eager to believe in alien abductions. Under hypnotic suggestion, a patient may talk about fantastic images or strange feelings. With no verification available, the patient is led to trust the opinions of the therapist (Eisner, 2000, p. 79). Patients are never told that there are alternative explanations or that they should think critically about their experience. In some cases, as Eisner explains, patients were even told the government was watching them, knowing of the patient’s abduction.

Patients like Marian were told to break off all ties with family members (Eisner, 2000, p. 198). Collaboration is missing in Alien Abduction Therapy. Without the opportunity to discuss the retrieved memories with friends or family, it becomes easier for false memories to flourish. A study of the elderly revealed that couples with shared experiences tended to have better memories of events than single people. As collaborators, they could correct each other when one or the other made an error in explaining a past event. Likewise, they could support each other when accurate statements were made (Bower, 2004). By convincing a patient to break off family ties, or discouraging critical thinking, a therapist can create a loyal patient who will co-operate.

False Memories: Real Biology

Hypnosis expert Weitzenhoffer states that “through suggestions given to hypnotized individuals, it is possible to induce alterations to memories” (“Hypnosis”). Recent research has demonstrated that memories can be falsified.

A study conducted by neuroscientists at Northwest University took a group of subjects and showed them various combinations of words and images. In some cases, the word “frog” would be shown, followed by a picture of a frog. In other case, unrelated word and image combinations were shown. For example, the word “cat” was followed by a picture of a raspberry. Afterward, while in an FMRI brain scanner, subjects were shown images and asked whether or not they saw those images during the test. Subjects repeatedly recognized images shown in the second test as being in the original experiment. However, one-third of the images recognized were never part of the original experiment. Test subjects stated they remembered seeing the image of a cat, when all they had actually seen was the word “cat.” The FMRI scans revealed brain activity in the three areas associated with generating visual memories (Luden, 2004).

Researchers at John Hopkins University conducted an experiment and had similar results. Again brain scans noted activity in the left hippocampus tail as well as the perirhinal cortex, which is related to the encoding of memory (Imaging, 2005). In both cases, the evidence led to the conclusion that false memories are encoded in the brain the same way real memories are. A biological basis exists.

Conclusion

Many people suffer from problems related to mental health. Depression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, and many other conditions are treated by professional and caring therapists every day. Sadly, some of these people fall victim to fringe therapy, which costs patients a lot of money and, at times, alienation from loved ones.

Marian, like many patients who have undergone Alien Abduction Therapy, eventually found another therapist and recanted her false memories. She would eventually reconcile with her family (Eisner, 2000, p. 199). After recanting, many patients have filed lawsuits against unethical psychotherapists (Eisner, 2000, p. 77).

“The actual memory, with all its vagueness, omissions, and ellipses, not to say distortions—that’s second best,” McClane said to Douglas Quail as part of his sales pitch (Dick, 2002, 331). False memories, in the story, could be better than the real thing. Just like the fictitious Rekal Corporation, alien abduction therapists are motivated by profit. They make money treating patients and selling books directed toward those who believe in alien abduction. Profit margins, not clinical research, are on what they base their success. Sincere, well-educated psychologist and therapists need to be openly critical of this fringe element which only harms its patients.

This essay was original written December 2, 2009 as a term paper for a psychology class. Small adjustments have been from the original for editing purposes.

Copyright  © 2009 Paul George

References

Bower, Bruce (2004), Two-headed memories: Collaboration gives recall lift to elderly, AccessScience@McGraw-Hill,  http://www.accessscience.com.

Dick, Philip K. (2002). We can remember it for you wholesale.  Selected Stories of Philip K. Dick (pp. 328-349). New York: Pantheon.

Eisner, Donald A. (2000). Death of Psychotherapy: From Freud to Alien Abductions. Westport:Greenwood Publishing.

Imaging shows how brain can create ‘false memories’. (2005, February 5). Toronto Star (Canada),Retrieved from Newspaper Source database.

Jacobs, David M. (2003). Hypnosis can reveal the existence of alien abduction. In  Roleff, T.L. (Ed.), Alien  Abduction: Fact or Fiction? (pp. 43-52). Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press.

Luden, Jennifer  (2004, October). Analysis:  Preliminary findings on how the brain creates false memories. Weekend All Things Considered (NPR), Retrieved from Newspaper Source database.

Mack, John E. (2003). The principal features of alien abduction. In Roleff, T.L. (Ed.), Alien Abduction: Fact or Fiction? (pp. 21-32). Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press.

Myers, David G. (2008). Exploring Psychology (7th ed.). New York: Worth

Shermer, Michael (2003). It is unlikely that humans are abducted by aliens. In T.L. Roleff (Ed.), Alien Abduction: Fact or Fiction? (pp. 67-76). Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press.

Weitzenhoffer, André M. “Hypnosis”, in AccessScience@McGraw-Hill, http://www.accessscience.com.